Many of you will recognize the above phrase as the signature slogan of Walter Mondale’s campaign during his ill-fated run for the 1984 presidency. Despite that catchy slogan, which was derived from a popular tv commercial in the early 1980s, Mondale suffered an historic defeat. More on that later.

Walter Frederick (“Fritz”) Mondale was a politician, lawyer, diplomat and statesman. He served in the US Senate representing the State of Minnesota from 1964-1976. He was US vice president from 1977-1980 under President Jimmy Carter, and he ran for President in 1984, losing to Ronald Reagan. More on that later too.

Mondale was born on January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, MN. His father was a Methodist minister, and his mother worked as a part-time music teacher. Mondale had two brothers and a half-brother. His father’s family was primarily of Norwegian descent, and his mother was of English-Scottish ancestry. The name “Mondale” was derived from Mundal, a town in Norway. Like many immigrants, upon their arrival in the US, Mondale’s forbears chose (or were given) the surname of their home town in the “old” country. Also, like many other immigrants, at some point they anglicized the name to “fit in” better in America.

Upon graduating high school Mondale attended the University of Minnesota from which he graduated cum laude with a BA in political science in 1951. He wanted to go to law school, but money was “tight,” so he enlisted in the Army. It was during the Korean War, but, luckily, Mondale was assigned to Fort Knox. Following his honorable discharge he attended the University of Minnesota Law School on the GI Bill and, once again, graduated cum laude. Afterwards, he practiced law for four years.

Along the way, he met his future wife, Joan, on a blind date. They were married in 1955.

Mondale exhibited an interest in politics at an early age. For example, in 1948 at the tender age of 20, he helped organize Minneapolis mayor Hubert Humphrey’s successful campaign for the US Senate. In 1952 and 1956 he worked on Minnesota Governor Orville Freeman’s campaign staff. (Freeman lost in 1952 and then won in 1956.) As a reward for his loyal service in 1960 Governor Freeman appointed Mondale to fill the recently-vacated office of MN Attorney General. Two years later Mondale won election to the office in his own right. In 1964, MN Governor Karl Rolvaag appointed him to the US Senate to replace Humphrey following his election to vice president. Subsequently, in 1966 and 1972 he was elected in his own right.

In 1976 he became VP under Jimmy Carter. However, Carter’s administration was very unpopular. There were many reasons but the main ones were (1) a bad economy, which produced double-digit inflation, (2) a severe oil shortage, which culminated in long gas lines, and (3) Iran humiliating the US by taking and holding several Americans prisoner. As a result, Carter’s and Mondale’s re-election campaign was doomed almost from the start.

Mondale is generally credited with establishing the now popular concept of being an “activist” vice president. For example, the office had generally been nothing more than that of a figurehead . The VP’s sole function was to be available to fill the role of president when, as and if needed due to illness, assassination or some other cataclysmic event. Mondale expanded the role of the office significantly. For instance, he was the first vp to establish an office in the White House; he had lunches with the president on a weekly basis; and, in general, served as an advisor and troubleshooter for Carter.

In 1984 Mondale reached the peak of his political career when he captured the Democrat Party nomination for President. His two main rivals were Colorado Senator Gary Hart and political activist Jesse Jackson. Mondale considered Hart’s policies to be misleading and shallow. In order to hammer home this point he denigrated them with the phrase “where’s the beef,” which was very familiar to most voters as the tag line of a popular TV commercial. He used this phrase repeatedly at all his campaign rallies, and the crowds loved it. It became one of those memorable lines that still resonates today. (Most of us remember the line, but can you name the company and the product? See the answer below.)

After winning the nomination aides said Mondale was determined to make an “historic choice ” as his vp nominee. He considered women, such as San Francisco Mayor Dianne Feinstein, African Americans, such as LA Mayor Tom Bradley, and Hispanics, such as San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros. Ultimately, he selected Geraldine Ferraro , a US Representative from NY. It didn’t matter. The incumbent, Ronald Reagan, was very popular and the economy was very strong. Mondale was generally perceived as too liberal, and he suffered the worst electoral defeat in history by a Democrat, 525-13. He only won Washington, D.C. and his home state of MN.

In retrospect I and many other observers believe Reagan won the election at the beginning of the second debate, which is very rare. Most people don’t remember that Reagan had “lost” the first debate, and at the time the issue was in doubt. It was akin to winning a baseball game in the first inning or an NBA game in the first quarter. At the time, Reagan was, at 73, was the oldest person to serve as president. Mondale, at 56, was perceived as being significantly younger. His age was the voters’ primary concern. Reagan destroyed that issue with the following quip: “I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent’s youth and inexperience.” It was, in my view, one of the most memorable and effective statements in presidential debate history. Everyone laughed, even Mondale. Just like that, Reagan had negated his primary liability.


I always considered Mondale to be a genuinely nice guy, even though I didn’t agree with most of his political views. He was not disingenuous, nasty or mean-spirited as so many politicians are today. He was a consensus-builder, not a divider as seems to be the norm today.

After the election Mondale essentially lived a quiet life away from the national spotlight, although he did serve as ambassador to Japan and as chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. In addition, he maintained a close relationship with his alma mater and with his Norwegian heritage. He enjoyed a variety of hobbies such as skiing, fishing, reading and tennis.

He passed away quietly in his sleep of natural causes on April 19. At the time of his death he held the distinction of being the oldest living former US VP. Unfortunately, his passing was underreported by the national media considering his contributions and accomplishments to the country. Most of the media and the public seemed to be more interested in the Derek Chauvin trial, other police shootings, and the crisis at the southern border, among other things.

Rest in peace Fritz. You served this country well, and you will be sorely missed.

Quiz answer: Wendy’s hamburgers.


Number 42. Does that have any special meaning for you, or is it just another number? Baseball fans, civil rights advocates, and students of history will recognize it as the uniform number worn by Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers. It should be noted that that uniform number has two other major significances:

1. It is the only number to have been retired by every major league baseball team (in 1997); and
2. since 2004, every year on April 15 on what is known as “Jackie Robinson Day,” every player wears that number in tribute to Jackie Robinson in recognition of the anniversary of his debut in the major leagues in 1947.  On that historic date Jackie became the first African American to play in the major leagues since the 1880s.

Unfortunately, last year fans were deprived of said tribute due to COVID, which delayed the start of the baseball season. This year things will return to normal. Celebrations will take place tomorrow, April 15 (Friday, April 16 for those teams that don’t play the 15th).

In order to put this in its proper perspective one must realize the racial situation in 1947. Life was radically different, a reality that few of us who live in the PC era can appreciate.  Much has changed in the intervening 73 years.

For example:

1. Segregation was the law of the land. “Jim Crow” was alive and well.
The “Brown” Supreme Court decision integrating public schools would not come until 1954.
2. Even though many AAs had distinguished themselves during WWII the armed forces would not be integrated until 1948.
3. A disproportionate percentage of MLB players were from the South and espoused all the values, attitudes and experiences of the region regarding AAs.  Most of them had never played ball with an AA.  Many had rarely even associated with one as peers.
4. The prevailing attitude among players, sports writers, and fans was that AAs were not good enough and did not have the “temperament” to succeed in MLB.

Very few of us lived through that era, and consequently, we cannot imagine the circumstances Jackie had to overcome.

Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919 in Cairo, Georgia.  His parents chose his middle name in honor of President Teddy Roosevelt, who had recently died.  He was the youngest of five children.  One of his older brothers, Mack, would later earn some notoriety by winning the silver medal in the 100 meter dash in the 1936 Olympics, (the Games held in Berlin at which Jesse Owens embarrassed Adolph Hitler and the Nazis by winning four gold medals).

Jackie’s parents were sharecroppers and barely scraping by, so in 1920 they moved to Pasadena, California seeking a better life.  In high school and college Jackie excelled in five sports – baseball, basketball, football, track and tennis.  Basically, he was an all-around athlete who excelled in any sport he tried.  At UCLA he became the school’s first athlete to “letter” in four sports (all of the above except tennis).  One of his teammates on the 1939 UCLA football team was the future actor, Woody Strode.  Ironically, statistically, at least, baseball was his worst sport of the four.

In 1941 Jackie left UCLA just shy of graduating to play semi-pro football, but in early 1942 he was drafted and stationed at Fort Riley in Texas.  He applied for admission to OCS. Initially, his application was rejected as few blacks were accepted at the time, but following a personal appeal from Joe Louis, the reigning heavyweight boxing champ, he was accepted.

Jackie’s tenure in the army was marred by one unfortunate incident in which his fiery temperament got him in trouble.  While riding an Army bus one day the driver told him to move to the back.  Jackie refused.  As a result he was nearly court-martialed for insubordination and other “trumped up” offenses.  A conviction would have changed the course of his life and, possibly, the country’s as well, but he was acquitted.

In 1945 Jackie signed to play for the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro Leagues. Unbeknownst to him, Branch Rickey, President of the Brooklyn Dodgers, was looking for a Negro to break the major leagues’ “color barrier,” which had been in place since the 1880s.  He had compiled a list of the best players in the Negro leagues and was evaluating them for suitability.  There were many players better than Jackie, notably Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson, but due to age, temperament and other factors, they were all eliminated in favor of Jackie.

Rickey knew the first AA player would have to “turn the other cheek” to a great deal of verbal, physical and emotional abuse.  Otherwise, it might be many more years before the next one got a chance.  When he told Jackie this, Jackie was shocked and replied: “Are you looking for a Negro who is afraid to fight back?” Rickey’s famous reply was that he was seeking a Negro “with guts enough not to fight back.”

To make a long story short, Rickey signed Jackie.  He played for the Montreal Royals, the Dodgers AAA minor league affiliate in the International League, in 1946.  He “tore up” the league, winning the MVP award.  The next year he made his debut in the major leagues.

To me, his debut was one of the most significant events not only in baseball history, but also in the country’s history.  There was tremendous resistance not only from other Dodgers, but from players on other teams as well.

Again, it is very hard for us to appreciate the level of abuse to which Jackie was subjected. Breaking into the major leagues is hard enough, physically. The added mental and emotional pressures Jackie and other AAs had to overcome was mind-boggling. Jackie had to endure a tremendous amount of prejudice and abuse both on and off the field (name calling, spiking, “beanings,” separate lodgings and restaurants on the road, etc.  Eventually, other AAs would join him in the majors. They had to overcome many of the same obstacles.  Some were unable to survive, but many more did.

Luckily, Dodger management was behind Jackie 100%.  When some Dodgers players threatened to quit, strike or demand a trade, the team’s manager, Leo Durocher, a fiery, no nonsense person himself, nipped the rebellion in the bud.  He declared: “I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a f****** zebra.  I’m the manager of this team, and I say he plays.”  Players on other teams also threatened to strike, but MLB Commissioner “Happy” Chandler quelled that rebellion quickly as well.


Rickey chose well with Jackie.  In baseball parlance, he “knocked it out of the park.”  Attendance soared and not just in Brooklyn but in every other city as well. Black people came in droves to see their hero, Jackie Robinson, play.  In those days, attendance was the primary source of ball clubs’ revenue, so Jackie made money for everyone.

Not only did Jackie “take” all the abuse without incident, he starred on the field and became an integral part of one of the most storied teams in baseball history, the “Boys of Summer.”  In a ten-year period from 1947-1956 that team dominated the National League.

It won six pennants, lost another in a playoff and lost another by one game.

Among Jackie’s many MLB accomplishments:

1. Rookie of the year in 1947 (the first one).
2. National League MVP in 1949.
3. Appeared in six World Series.
4. World champion in 1955.
5. First ballot hall of famer in 1962.
6. Member of the MLB All-Century team.

Jackie was extremely versatile,  Although he came up as a second baseman, he also played first, third and the outfield.  Many times, he was among the league leaders in fielding at his position.  He was one of the best “clutch” players I have ever observed.  He could beat you with the bat, the glove or on the bases.  I have never seen a better baserunner or a tougher competitor.  When on base, he would drive the opposing pitcher crazy with his antics.  He was always a threat to steal a base.  I saw him steal home in the 1955 World Series.  When caught in a rundown he often escaped, which, generally, was a rarity.  His aggressive style of play was unique for the 1940s and 1950s.

As an example of his extremely competitive nature, one story will suffice.  In the decisive third game of the 1951 playoff with the NY Giants, when the Giants’ Bobby Thompson hit the game winning home run, all the Dodgers left the field immediately with their heads down in defeat.  All except for Jackie.  He watched and made sure that Thompson touched all the bases on his home run trot.  He would not accept defeat until Thompson had completed his circuit.

Jackie retired from baseball after the 1956 season worn down by age and diabetes, but he did not retire from life.  For example, he became very active in the civil rights movement; he became the first black to serve as vp of a major corporation (Chock Full O’Nuts); he went into broadcasting; and he acted in a movie of his own life story.

Ultimately, however, his fierce competitiveness could not overcome ill health.  Jackie died on October 24, 1972 at the relatively young age of 53 from complications of heart disease and diabetes.  I’m sure that all the stress he had to endure on the playing field also contributed to his early demise.

Jackie’s legacy, however, lives on.  There are countless statues, schools, parks and roads named in his honor.  Moreover, every time a black or other minority takes the field in the major leagues, the NFL or the NBA, he owes a debt to the pioneer who made it all possible.

So, tomorrow, while watching your favorite team in action take a moment to appreciate the special achievement of one Jack Roosevelt Robinson.


Prince Philip had the distinction of having the longest tenure as consort to a reigning monarch in the long history of Great Britain’s monarchy. At the time of his retirement from royal duties in August 2017 at the age of 96 he had completed 22,219 solo engagements and made 5,493 speeches. Additionally, at his death at the age of 99 years and 10 months he was the third-most enduring member and most enduring male of any British royal household. By any measure, Philip had lived a long and eventful life.

Philip was born on the dining room table of the family home on Corfu, one of the Greek Islands, on June 10, 1921. He was a great-great-grandchild of Queen Victoria (as is Queen Elizabeth). As a descendent of both Greek and Danish kings he was an heir of both thrones. This situation could only occur in Europe where members of royal families had intermarried among themselves for centuries. The interlocking familial relationships among Europe’s royalty is both bewildering and uninteresting to all but the most ardent royal scholars, which does not include me, so I will not discuss it further.

When Philip was but 18 months old, as a result of losing a civil war, King Constantin I, Philip’s uncle, was forced to abdicate his throne, and the family was exiled by the victorious military leaders. Philip and his mother settled in France. As a youth he was educated in France, Germany and the UK. Although he became fluent in German, French and English, he never did learn Greek. He always said he considered himself to be Danish.

Philip and Elizabeth met in 1939 when he was 18 and a naval cadet at Dartmouth Naval College about to “ship out,” and she was but 13. While King George, Queen Elizabeth and their two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, were touring the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth, the Queen arranged for Philip to escort the two girls. Afterwards, according to a royal biographer, Philip was “flattered” to ascertain that both Elizabeth and her younger sister, Margaret, had developed “crushes” on him.

In 1946 Philip formally asked the king for Elizabeth’s hand in marriage. The king approved his request on the condition that the marriage be delayed until after April 1947 when Elizabeth would turn 21. In the meantime, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles, became a naturalized British subject, and adopted his mother’s family surname of Mountbatten. They were married in November 1947.

Upon the sudden death of her father Elizabeth became Queen. At the time the couple was on a tour of Africa, and, communication being relatively primitive there, it took some time before they could be located, notified and returned home. Following Elizabeth’s ascension a question arose as to the official name of the monarchy. Normally, Elizabeth , as wife, would have taken Philip’s family name, which would have meant a name change to the House of Mountbatten. This was favored by the Mountbatten branch of Philip’s family. Philip proposed the House of Edinburgh consistent with his ducal title. Ultimately, Prime Minister Winston Churchill prevailed upon the queen to retain the House of Windsor name. Another oddity was that Elizabeth now outranked and was the boss over both her mother and grandmother, who, themselves, were former queens

At first, Philip struggled to adjust to his new role as consort to the queen. There was no defined role for the husband of the queen. At times, he was described as “irascible,” “tough-minded,” and “out of touch.” He often chafed at the restrictions of his role. He was known for making politically incorrect, or even racist remarks. On the other hand, many found his candor, especially for a royal, to be “refreshing.”

Simply put, as consort, Philip’s role was to support his wife in her duties as sovereign. As observers of the royal family know, that was both simple and complicated. The couple had to separate their relationship as husband and wife from that of monarch and consort. It was difficult for both of them, perhaps more so for Philip who as the husband viewed himself as head of the household. In his official role, for example, he was required to walk three steps behind Elizabeth as a sign of deference. Moreover, he was outranked not only by his wife, but also by his son, Charles. Elizabeth was sympathetic to his situation, and tried her best to accommodate him. It was difficult for both of them, but eventually, they figured it out. Elizabeth often referred to Philip as “her rock.” In turn, his pet name for her was “Lilibet.” It helped matters when, in 1957, Elizabeth granted Philip the title of “Prince of the United Kingdom by Letters Patent.”


Philip’s hobbies included polo, flying and yachting. In his later years Philip was plagued by various ailments. For example, in April 2018 he had a hip replacement; in January 2019 he was involved in a car accident; in December 2019 he was hospitalized for what was termed “a preexisting condition; and finally, on February 16, 2021 he was hospitalized as a “precautionary measure” as a result of “feeling unwell.”

Philip passed away on April 9, 2021 at the age of 99, just two months short of his 100th birthday. The official cause of death has not been disclosed. Queen Elizabeth characterized Philip’s death as “having left a huge void in my life.”

Philip had often said that he really had no interest in living a really long life. In 2000 when he was 79 he told an interviewer that he had “no desire whatsoever” to live to be 100 as “bits of me are falling off already.”

Rest in peace Prince Philip. You served your country and your queen with distinction, and you will be sorely missed.


You really can’t make this up. The furor over Georgia’s revised voting law has been blown way out of proportion. What has occurred is not logical and defies common sense. It is a microcosm of what is happening in this country. It exemplifies the political and racial divisions in America at the present time. Criticisms of the new law are rife with lies, misconceptions and exaggerations, all with the intent to deceive the uninformed and score political points. It would be funny if it weren’t so sad and frightening.

Briefly, the situation is as follows:

  1. The State of Georgia has amended its voting law as it is authorized to do by that pesky document called the Constitution. The amended law was written, debated and approved by a clear majority of both houses of the state legislature and signed into law by Governor Kemp. Unlike most laws nowadays it was passed with bipartisan support.
  2. It has various features that liberalize voting procedures. For example, it increases the number of drop boxes; it expands early voting; and it increases the hours in which polls are to be open.
  3. All of the above are designed to enable more eligible voters to get to the polls.
  4. Collectively, these changes made the state’s voting laws more open and liberal than those of many, if not most, states, including President Biden’s home state of Delaware.
  5. The problem for some people is that it also requires voters to present a valid ID. This feature is an anathema to Dems. Apparently it is serious enough to cause them to vehemently oppose the law. Perhaps, critics are ignorant of the fact that (according to Ballotpedia) presently 36 states require voters to present some form of ID (or, perhaps, they choose to ignore it for the sake of politics). To these critics, the requirement of an ID signals a return to the “Jim Crow” laws of yesteryear. In condemning the law President Biden, other prominent Dems, and their allies in the fake news media have characterized it in just that manner. Their new catchphrase for it is “Jim Crow on steroids.” I say, they all need a history lesson. Anyone the least bit knowledgeable of the “Jim Crow” period knows there is no comparison, and to make one is a huge insult to those who suffered through it.

According to polls conducted by both Gallup and the AP some 80% of respondents support voter ID. They see it as a mechanism to safeguard what I feel is among our most cherished rights – free and fair elections, where only those eligible to vote may do so. Think about that! 80% of Americans do not normally agree on anything! Clearly, the Dems are on the wrong side of this issue.

Those who object to IDs claim it is racist and a tool for voter suppression. I think that is a ludicrous argument. They would have you believe that many Blacks, Hispanics and other poor, disadvantaged minorities are somehow going through life without valid IDs and are incapable of obtaining them. According to many Blacks, notably journalists Lawrence Jones, Candace Owens and Leo Terrell, among many others, that argument, in and of itself, is racist. It implies that these groups, for lack of intelligence or other faults, are incapable of figuring out how to obtain an ID. As we all know, IDs are easy to obtain. Just go on-line or visit the DMV. Of course, one would need to be able to document one is in the US legally. Everyone knows that is the real reason for the Dems’ objection.

In reality, it is virtually impossible to live in the US nowadays without a valid ID. Some of the things that require a valid ID are:

  1. Purchase alcohol.
  2. Purchase tobacco.
  3. Open a bank account.
  4. Apply for welfare.
  5. Apply for Medicaid
  6. Apply for social security.
  7. Apply for unemployment.
  8. Apply for a job.
  9. Apply for a mortgage.
  10. Rent a house or apartment.
  11. Drive, buy or rent a car.
  12. Board an airplane or a cruise ship.
  13. Get married.
  14. Purchase a firearm.
  15. Apply for a hunting license.
  16. Apply for a fishing license.
  17. Buy a cell phone.
  18. Enter a casino.
  19. Donate blood.
  20. Rent a hotel room
  21. Buy certain over-the-counter medicines such as Sudafed.

In other words, it is virtually impossible to live in a modern-day society without an ID. Almost everyone who is living in the US legally has one. I don’t know anyone without one. Do you?


Predictably, several institutions have hopped on the cancel culture bandwagon with respect to this issue. For example, MLB has moved its 2021 All-Star Game from Atlanta to Denver. (More on that later.) In addition, other corporations, such as Coca Cola and Delta Airlines have gone on record condemning this law. Maybe, we should all take a page out of the Dem playbook and boycott MLB, Coca Cola, Delta, and these other companies.

As I said above, these people have absolutely no conception of how degrading and horrific life was really like for people of color under “Jim Crow” laws. Simply put, they are ignorant and scared, ignorant of history, and scared of the cancel culture/twitter crowd. I don’t have the time, space or inclination to educate them. Perhaps, they could ask their grandparents what it was like. Furthermore, I would wager that their decision-makers have not read the law and don’t have the foggiest conception of what it contains.

The irony of this entire fiasco regarding MLB is that moving the All-Star festivities from Atlanta to Denver will severely hurt the very people it claims it is trying to support. The population of Cobb and Fulton Counties, which are located in and around the Atlanta area are heavily minority and working class. These people were relying on the economic boost the All-Star festivities would have brought to the city and the state. Moreover, in the 2021 run-off senatorial elections it was those areas that were primarily responsible for electing the two Dem candidates that have given the Dems control of the Senate. On the other hand, Denver is heavily white.

To be consistent, perhaps, MLB should cease business relations with China, which has one of the worst records of human rights. Don’t hold your breath for that.

So, were MLB’s hasty, ill-advised actions racist? One might argue that they were. In contrast, kudos to the PGA for not cancelling or relocating the Masters golf tournament.

As for Biden, in my mind he has no credibility on this issue. First of all, maybe he doesn’t know or has forgotten that Delaware’s election laws are more restrictive than Georgia’s. As the late Casey Stengel was fond of saying, “you could look it up.” Secondly, Biden was one of those who supported the late Senator Robert Byrd, a senior member of the KKK back in the day. He even eulogized Byrd at his funeral. Throughout his long political career he has been like a “chameleon on steroids” regarding race. Just listen to his old speeches. It’s time someone called him out on it, but I don’t anticipate anyone doing so. To put it kindly, Biden is being disingenuous on this issue to score political points. Even the liberal Washington Post, in evaluating his comments, gave him “four Pinocchios.” In view of the strong political bias of the Post that is bad, really bad. As I said, the Dems are on the wrong side of this issue, one more thing that figures to hurt them in the 2022 elections.


They say that love is a very powerful emotion, perhaps, the most powerful of all. People in love will do virtually anything, suffer any pain, surmount any obstacles to be together. Many of you are familiar with the popular saying “love conquers all.” The following is an apt example of that. It is an account of two individuals whose love survived and, indeed, flourished amid the horror of the Holocaust.

Julian Noga was born on July 31, 1921 in a small village near Tarnow, Poland. His family was Catholic. His parents had emigrated to the US before WWI, but his mother had returned to Poland before Julian was born. They settled in Skrzynka, a small, nondescript village in southern Poland near Krakow. At the age of 16 Julian witnessed the shocking mass murder of some 27 Jews in the village, most of whom Julian knew and many of whom were his friends. The Nazis forced them to dig their own graves and then summarily shot them. Horrified, Julian took an abandoned rifle, fled into the woods, and joined a resistance group. Eventually, he was caught and deported to Austria to labor for a family that owned a large farm and was short of workers. By happenstance, the farm was owned by the family of Frieda Greinegger.

The two fell in love, but that presented a seemingly insurmountable problem. According to Nazi dogma Germans were “forbidden to be “friendly” toward Poles. I’m not sure of the extent of the Nazis’ definition of “friendly,” but it certainly included love and marriage. Frieda’s father forbid them to have any relationship. In an effort to separate them Julian was reassigned to work at another farm, but that didn’t stop them. Finally, they were betrayed to the Gestapo, which arrested them. Frieda was sent to Ravensbrueck; Julian was sent to Flossenburg, to labor in a quarry.

That should have been the end of the story, but not so fast. In 1942 Frieda was freed and sent home. She continued to try to ascertain Julian’s fate. Finally, she learned where he was being imprisoned from another Polish laborer. She bribed the laborer to mail a letter and box of fruit to Julian. “It was a big chance to take,” she later admitted,. We all know what would have been her fate if the Nazis had found out, but she did not hesitate to take the risk.

In April, 1945 fate again intervened in their favor. Julian was on a “death march” to Dachau when he was liberated by some US soldiers. Shortly after Germany’s surrender he traveled to Frieda’s home by bicycle to search for her. When he found her he simply said, “Frieda, I’m still alive, and I still love you.”


And, now the happy ending. With the Nazis defeated Frieda’s father gave his blessing. Frieda and Julian were married and emigrated to the US, settling in the Utica, NY area. Julian became a successful businessman. They were married for 68 years until Frieda’s death in 2012. Julian passed away in 2014.

Julian and Frieda got the best revenge against the Nazis. They survived, raised a big family, and enjoyed a long, happy life. Mazel Tov!


It’s April 1, and today, after a long winter of cold, rain and COVID restrictions, is the start of the 2021 baseball season, aka OPENING DAY. All 30 teams are scheduled, although inclement weather may force some postponements.

In some years MLB has scheduled “pre-opening” games before the official OD. The initial pre-opener was in 1999 in Monterey, Mexico. Other pre-openers have been played in San Juan, Sydney and, most recently, in Tokyo. Opening in these distant locales may be inconvenient for the players, but MLB does it to broaden the exposure and appeal of the game. Indeed, MLB rosters are chock full of players from countries in places such as the Caribbean, Central America, South America and Asia. Nearly 30% of MLB players are foreign-born.

MLB does not consider these pre-openers to mark the official start of the season. It has always considered OD to be the first date when a full slate of games was scheduled. Got it?

As you know, last year MLB was forced to limit the length of the season to 60 games due to restrictions resulting from COVID, but this year it plans to play a full slate of 162 games. Let’s hope and pray it will be able to do so. Most ballparks will permit a limited amount of fans depending on local COVID policies. Expect requirements to wear masks and maintain social distancing, but, to me, such restrictions are a small price to pay to be able to attend the games.

Usually, the early games are plagued by inclement weather – cold, rain, even snow – especially in the northeast. Not an ideal scenario for MLB and its fans, but that’s the price we pay in order for the World Series to be completed before November.

For many years, MLB had scheduled the very first game of the season in Cincinnati, usually on the first Monday in April, with a full slate of games the next day. This was in recognition of the fact that the Reds were the first professional baseball team. In fact, the Reds are the only team that has always been scheduled to play its first game at home. There have only been two years when they opened on the road – 1966, when the home opener was rained out and 1990 when the season was delayed due to the lockout. The team was formed in 1869 as the Red Stockings. The team has undergone various name changes and is now known as the “Reds.” Incidentally, for you trivia buffs, they went 65-0 that first year, the only perfect season in baseball history.

The National League was organized in 1876, and the American League in 1901. For many years there were 16 teams – eight teams in each league, all in the northeast, with no team being located west of St. Louis. With the advent of air travel in the late 1950s it became feasible to add franchises in other sectors of the country. Presently, there are 30 teams – 15 in each league.

Despite the often inclement weather, OD holds a special meaning. Mention those words to any sports fan, and, immediately, he knows what it means and to which sport it pertains. Not football, not basketball, not hockey. OD means that another season of Major League Baseball is beginning. Baseball fans look forward to OD every year. Local newspapers step up their coverage of the local team in anticipation. Many of them even print a daily countdown of the number of days remaining until OD. In addition, OD occurs in the Spring, a season that symbolizes a new beginning and one which most people anticipate every year.
Most fans will acknowledge that baseball is no longer the most popular sport. In fact, according to TV ratings, betting interest and most fan polls, football has superseded baseball. Perhaps, basketball has as well, particularly among younger fans. However, baseball, which has been played in the US in some form since the 1840s, is part of the social fabric of America.

Most men remember their first game of “catch” with their father or their first baseball game. For most boys it is a “rite of passage” as uniquely American as the flag. In fact, I have a more detailed recall of a World Series game I saw with my father in 1956 than I do of ballgames I saw last year.

Every fan is optimistic on OD. Every team starts with the same 0-0 record. None has lost a game yet. Every team still has a chance to make the playoffs, and as we have seen in recent years, once you make the playoffs anything can happen. For example, in 2016 the Chicago Cubs won it all for the first time since 1908. Think about that for a minute. That means that no present Cubs fan, and virtually none of their fathers, were even born the previous time the Cubs had won. In 2017 the Houston Astros won their first WS after having languished near the bottom of the league for many years. Several wild card teams have actually won the World Series, most recently, the Washington Nationals, in 2019.

Many fans, and even some reporters, place undue emphasis on the opener forgetting or ignoring the fact that the season consists of 162 games. Over the course of a baseball season even the best teams will lose approximately 60 games. To many fans, a win OD means the season will be outstanding; a loss means the team “stinks.”

Down through the years, OD has produced some memorable events, such as:

1. In 1907, the NY Giants, forerunner of the San Francisco Giants, forfeited the opener after rowdy fans began throwing snowballs at the players and umpires. There were not enough police on hand to restore order, so the umpires forfeited the game to the visiting Phillies.
2. In 1910 President Taft became the first President to throw out the “first ball.” In 1950 President Truman threw out the “first pitch” twice, as a righty and a lefty. Over the years nearly every president has done so, and the practice has evolved from a perfunctory toss from the stands to a more elaborate ceremonial toss from the mound. Will we see President Biden follow tradition this year? Your guess is as good as mine, but I doubt it. Can you imagine him doing the “wave?”
3. In 1940, Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians, known as “Rapid Robert” because of his high velocity fast ball, threw the only OD day no-hitter in baseball history. As an aside, there were no radar guns in Feller’s day, so one day some officials attempted to “time” his fastball by having him throw a pitch against a speeding motorcycle.
4. In 1947 Jackie Robinson debuted for the Brooklyn Dodgers on OD becoming the first African American to play in the major leagues since the 19th Century.
5. In 1975 Frank Robinson became the first African American to manage in the Major Leagues.
6. In 1996, John McSherry, an umpire, suffered a fatal heart attack near home plate.
7. Early in the 20th Century teams would, on occasion, open with a doubleheader. Doubleheaders used to be quite common, particularly on Sundays and holidays. Now, they are rare, and when they do occur it is usually the result of adding an extra game to make up for a rain-out. The reason? Money, of course.
8. In 1946 Boston Braves fans attending the game got an unpleasant surprise. It seems that the Braves’ management had had the stands freshly painted, and the paint had not completely dried. Many fans got red paint all over their clothes. The embarrassed management issued a public apology and paid the fans’ cleaning bills.
9. Tom Seaver started the most openers – 16. Walter Johnson pitched the most OD shutouts – nine, including a 1-0 victory in which he pitched 15 innings. No chance of that happening today.
10. In 1974 Henry Aaron clouted his 714th homerun tying Babe Ruth’s all-time record for career homers.
11. In 1968 minor leaguer Greg Washburn became the only pitcher to appear in two OD games in the same year. (He won both 2-0).

12. Some of the individual OD records we may see broken today are most home runs (3), most hits (5) most RBIs (7) and most strikeouts (15). Maybe, we will see another no-hitter, although the way the game is played today any no-hitter would be a group effort.


As I said, weather is often an issue on OD, especially in the northern cities where it is not unusual to have cold, damp, rainy weather in early April that is more suitable to football than baseball. It reminds me of one of the major criticisms of baseball, that the season is too long. We all know the reason – tv money. The owners like it, because it makes them rich and less dependent on attendance for revenues. The players tolerate it, because it fuels their astronomic salaries. As for the fans, well, they will just have to grin and bear it.

Hall of Fame pitcher, Early Wynn summed up the essence of OD thusly: “An opener is not like any other game. You have that anxiety to get off to a good start, for yourself and for the team. You know that when you win the first one you can’t lose them all.” Joe DiMaggio, always looked forward to OD. He felt “you think something wonderful is going to happen.” Finally, I am reminded of that renowned philosopher Yogi Berra, who could turn a phrase with the best of them, who is reputed to have said: “A home opener is always exciting, no matter if it’s home or on the road.”

My hope and prediction is for a Yankees-Dodgers World Series. They used to meet on what seemed like a regular basis, but they have not met since 1981. I think fans around the country would be “all-in,” and I know the media would love it. Last year, the Dodgers won the WS for the first time since 1988, and I’m hoping for a repeat.

What is your favorite OD memory? Please share.


April Fools Day

This is not an April Fools joke. It s a legitimate blog.

As you know, tomorrow is April 1, also known as “April Fools Day.”  I like a good joke as much as anyone, but I am not a big fan of pranking people on this date.  Maybe when I was 10 or so, but not now.  But, I was curious about the origins of the holiday, and how it is celebrated around the world.

According to Wikipedia AFD is not a official holiday in the US, or in any other country, for that matter (with the exception of Odessa, Ukraine for some reason), but it is widely recognized and celebrated around the world unofficially.  Some people love to play jokes and perpetrate hoaxes.  So, if you hear that President Biden has resigned and relocated to an assisted living facility or that James Dolan has sold the NY Knicks, or that China has “forgiven” the US’s debt, don’t believe it.  Those would most certainly be AFD jokes.

Even the media can be a willing participant.  One of my favorite AFD pranks occurred on April 1, 1985.  The Sports Illustrated” cover story that day was about a baseball pitching phenom named Sidd Finch.  At first, the story appeared to have credibility, as it was written by George Plimpton, an author of some renown, and published in SI.  Finch was presented as an unknown rookie pitching prospect in the NY Mets training camp.  (At that time Opening Day was later in April.)  So far, so good.  But, as one read the details of the story, particularly about his 160 MPH fastball, it became apparent that it was an AFD joke.

A few other famous, or infamous AFD pranks courtesy of CNN, (which many claim is the “fake news” network anyway):

1. Swiss spaghetti – On 4/1/57 a British tv show called “Panorama” claimed that the Swiss spaghetti harvest had enjoyed a “bumper year,” due to the unusually mild weather and the elimination of the “spaghetti weevil.”  This hoax was ranked the #1 AFD joke of all time by the Museum of Hoaxes.  (Yes, there is such a place.)

2. Toilet paper – On 4/1/73 Johnny Carson joked on the Tonight Show that there was a shortage of toilet paper. This hoax was credited with creating a real shortage as many listeners believed him and rushed out to “stock up.”

3. In 2015 Cottonelle announced it was developing “left-handed toilet paper.”  “It cleans just like right-handed toilet paper, only it’s made for (lefties),” touted one advertisement.

4. Google Gulp – In 1998 Google announced a drink called the “Google Gulp,” which, it said, would help one to “achieve maximum optimization of your soon-to-be grateful cerebral cortex,” [and it was] “low in carbs” to boot.

All in good fun!

Surprisingly, there are records of continuous AFD celebrations back as far as 536 BC in present day Iran. They celebrate the Persian holiday of Sizdah Bedar, which falls on the 13th day of the Persian New Year, (April 1). In addition, the Romans celebrated festivals called “Hilaria” on March 25 and the “Medieval Feast of Fools” on December 28. In certain Spanish-speaking countries, the latter is still a date on which pranks are played on people. Also, there is a reference to the holiday in Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales,” which was first published in 1387.

Additionally, according to Wikipedia, a 1908 edition of Harpers Weekly published a reference to AFD in connection with Noah’s Ark. I think the article, itself, was likely an AFD joke, particularly since the story of the Ark and the Flood strains credulity.

Supposedly in 1561 a Eduard de Dene, a Belgian poet of some renown, published a humorous poem about a nobleman who sent one of his servants on “foolish errands” on April 1.

According to Alex Boese, curator of the Museum of Hoaxes, the Dutch popularized the day in the late 16th century.  By the 1700s it had spread over much of Northern Europe, and eventually to the US.

Nowadays, the holiday is celebrated differently around the world. Some examples are as follows:

1. UK – The April Fool joke is disclosed when the perpetrator shouts “April Fool” at the recipient.  Traditionally, April Fool jokes are to cease at midday.  After that time, anyone trying to prank someone becomes the “April Fool” himself.  These AFD customs are similar in other countries whose traditions were influenced by the UK, such as the US.

2. Scotland – AFD is called “Hunt the Gowk Day.”  “Gowk” is Scots for a foolish person.

3. Ireland – A common tradition is to give the “prankee” an important letter in an envelope to give to a certain person.  That person would ask the “prankee” to give it to another person, and so on and so on.  Eventually, someone would open the envelope.  The letter inside would say “send the fool further.”

4. Poland – Traditionally, April 1 is a day to play jokes and hoaxes.  The media participates as well.  Serious matters are to be avoided.  For example, supposedly, a treaty signed on April 1, 1683 was later backdated to March 31.

5. France/Italy/Belgium – The holiday is called “April Fish,” for some reason.  One common prank is to attach a paper fish to the victim’s back without being detected. (Along these lines, in high school we used to put a “kick me” sign on a victim’s back, although not just on AFD.  Movie buffs may recall that this joke was played on McFly Senior in the movie “Back to the Future.”)

6. Sweden/Denmark – They celebrate on May 1 in addition to April 1. Many Danish and Swedish news outlets will intentionally publish one false story on April 1.


AFD can be fun, especially for kids. Even in the current PC era, a little harmless fun never hurt anyone.  That is especially true today as, in my view, many Americans are becoming increasingly humorless.

I recall some years ago my son told my grandson, who was six at the time and a huge Mets fan, that David Wright had been traded to the hated Yankees. To his credit, my grandson, merely shrugged his shoulders and asked “who for?”

I can remember being both the perpetrator and butt of April fool jokes in grade school and middle school. All in good fun.  I predict that some of you will be victimized this year. Be ready, and take it as the good fun in which it is intended.

Please tell me some of your favorite April fools moments.  Were you the perpetrator or the victim?   I promise you I won’t put it on Facebook (maybe).


Now we know why it took 65 days for President Biden to hold his first press conference. What we saw was painful to watch. What we saw was embarrassing to watch. What we saw was downright scary. No doubt, what we saw will frighten our allies and embolden our enemies. Politics aside, I actually felt sympathy and empathy for him.

For those Americans who watch the “real” news it was not that surprising. Some of us have seen worse. However, for those who get their news from CNN, MSNBC and the networks who habitually portray Biden in the best possible light you now have seen what the rest of the world has known for some time. Now you know truly “the emperor has no clothes.”

I don’t want to dwell on what Biden said so much as how he said it and the format of the presser, itself. For example:

  1. Biden’s comments were chock full of disingenuous statements, particularly with respect to the southern border. Essentially, he blamed the situation at the border on former president Trump, which is absurd on its face, and he glossed over the crisis he has created and perpetuated by his open door policy. Apparently, his “solution” to the non-crisis crisis is to (a) disperse illegals who have tested positive for COVID or have not been tested at all, throughout the US with a bus or airplane ticket, (b) put them up in luxury hotels at taxpayer expense, (c) alleviate the inhumane living conditions in the overcrowded holding facilities by transporting the overflow of migrants to Fort Bliss and other federal properties and (d) appoint co-President Harris, who has no background or expertise on that issue, laughs when asked about it by reporters, and is on record comparing ICE to the KKK, to fix it. Good luck with that.
  2. As Walt Frazier might say, Biden treated us to an array of fumbles, mumbles, and stumbles. For example, on several occasions he appeared to lose his place, and at one point he stated he had been in the Senate for “120 years.”
  3. He misstated and mischaracterized the purpose of the Senate filibuster, which he, himself, and his former allies, such as the late Robert Byrd, who was a very senior KKK member, employed many times. He tried to score a cheap political point by characterizing it as “racist” and a “relic of the ‘Jim Crow’ era.” If he were more familiar with the Constitution he would know that the Founding Fathers included the filibuster rules for a reason. The Senate is supposed to be a body that deliberates and debates matters unlike the House, which generally acts more quickly. (Some would say, rashly.) Biden should have been pressed on that issue, but, alas, he was not.
  4. It was clear that Biden, rather than speaking freely or extemporaneously, was reading from notes, or “cheat sheets” as he calls them, and yet he still was plagued by the aforementioned fumbles, mumbles and stumbles. A few times he lost his place, acted befuddled, and paused for several seconds until he found it. At one point he lost his train of thought completely and just stopped his answer in mid-sentence.
  5. It was clear he had a list of whom he was to call on for questions. No doubt, the questions, themselves, were preapproved in order to prevent Biden from being blindsided by a question he was not prepared to answer. Contrast that with all the other presidential pressers you have witnessed. Not surprisingly the aforementioned list did not include Fox News or any other “unfriendly” news outlets.
  6. There were no questions on important issues such as China, Russia, North Korea, Iran, how to get the teachers’ union to direct the teachers to return to work in CA and other states, election reform, the $5 trillion in bailout packages (both enacted and planned), or his tax increase plan, which is hanging over the country like a toxic pall.


I would like someone to tell me one positive result of the presser, other than the fact that he actually held one. To me, there aren’t any. On the other hand, our fears and concerns were confirmed. How will the man we saw be able to stand up to Putin, Xi, Kim Jung-Un, the Iranian mullahs, any of the other various bad actors in the world? The obvious answer is, he won’t. As I said above, our enemies will no doubt be emboldened, and our allies, as well as we, should be worried. Very worried.


Since the 2020 election I have tried to stay away from politics. I found it too upsetting, especially the controversial presidential election (putting it kindly) and the Georgia Senate races. I have blogged about these before. There is no need to rehash the results. At this point, it is what it is.

However, in view of current developments I cannot remain silent any longer. In my opinion, those in control of the government whose views I believe to be in the minority, appear to be bound and determined to force their radical agenda on the rest of us even if it means ruining the country. Furthermore, in Joe Biden they have found the perfect dupe to do so. I will demonstrate below.

Like most people who had been paying attention during the past year, once Biden won I could virtually predict what would happen. It’s not as if the far left radicals were keeping their agenda a secret. They were espousing it at every opportunity, on the news, in press conferences, and in debates. Also, their allies in the media and elsewhere were repeating it as well, Losing the majority in the Senate was the icing on the cake. Biden and the Dem Party are firmly under the control of the far left. Biden is either incapable of or doesn’t want to stand up to the radical far left in his own party, such as Bernie Sanders and the “Squad.”

Furthermore, with the support of the mainstream media and the tech moguls, they are now free to push their radical agenda with impunity. Anyone who dares to express a different viewpoint is branded a “racist.” With the Dems in control of the presidency and both houses of Congress as Chuck Schumer said, or rather threatened, “all bets were off.” What has occurred in little more than one month, though frightening, is not a surprise. As I said, the Dems were announcing their agenda all throughout the campaign. Many who voted for them and now claim to be surprised were simply not paying attention. They were focused on their own lives, worried about COVID, or just disliked President Trump so much they wanted him out at any cost. Many of those who were paying attention just chose not to believe they would actually follow through, at least not so quickly and decisively. I’ve lost track of how many of my Dem friends insisted that Biden was a “moderate,” despite all the empirical evidence to the contrary. Well, the Trump-haters got their wish. The “Big Orange Demon” is gone. But, as the expression goes, “be careful what you wish for.”

President Biden wasted no time in undoing as much of President Trump’s accomplishments as he could. For instance, in the first two weeks he signed no less than 28 Executive Orders. As we know, EOs are a convenient way for a president to implement policies without the approval of Congress. Every president does it, but Biden has taken it to a new level. Even though the country is in the midst of an existential pandemic he signed many of them the first couple of days as if he couldn’t wait to do so. This is the same Biden who criticized President Trump for using EOs as a tool to bypass Congress and the will of the American people and for “ruling by fiat.” Now, he is doing the same thing, except more so. By comparison, in the first MONTH of office President Trump signed a mere 12 and President Obama signed only 16. So, who is ruling by fiat?

Some of these EOs have had and will continue to have far-reaching negative effects on the country. Time and space limitations only permit me to discuss the most egregious. For example:

  1. Shutting down the Keystone Pipeline. This action, in one fell swoop, terminated some 11,000 high-paying union jobs and obviated our energy independence that we had strived for some 70 years to attain. I thought Biden was supposed to be a strong advocate of unions. I guess no longer. With the stroke of a pen Biden put us under the economic thumb of our enemies, such as the Middle East mullahs and Russia. The price of oil has skyrocketed and will continue to do so. You will be reminded of this EO every time you put gas in your car or pay your heating or air conditioning bill. Don’t be shocked if the price at the pump exceeds $4.00 per gallon this summer in some locales.
  2. Opening up the border. Unless you get all your news from CNN or MSNBC you have been seeing evidence of the crisis at the southern border on the news on a nightly basis. Migrants streaming over the border at the rate of hundreds of thousands a month, in some cases, wearing Biden tee shirts, unaccompanied minors being housed in facilities that are no more than boxes with bars on the windows with inadequate food, medical care, and toilet facilities, and minors as young as three years old unaccompanied by their parents. Who knows what abuses they have been subjected to by the cartel coyotes along the way from Guatemala or Honduras or wherever. Who knows how many have died along the way. Thanks to our “open door policy” in many respects the Mexican cartels are now virtually in control of our southern border. But, the worst aspect of this policy is that an unknown number of migrants who have tested positive for COVID or have not been tested at all have nevertheless been allowed to travel all over the country. How insane is that!? Some of them may very well end up in your neighborhood.
  3. Biden is so beholden to the teachers union that he continues to support its desire to keep schools in many areas closed, even though the science and supporting empirical evidence from private schools, other states and other countries has clearly shown that they can be reopened safely.
  4. Biden continues to advocate locking down the economy. Recently, he criticized the governors of Texas and Mississippi for fully opening up their states. He accused them of “Neanderthal thinking.” Imagine if Trump had said something like that. Yet, as I said, he is permitting illegals to enter the country and travel freely without medical screening in the midst of the worst pandemic in 100 years.
  5. He is going soft on Iran regarding the nuclear deal that Trump negotiated. God only knows what progress the Iranians have been making toward full nuclear capability.
  6. The next item on the agenda will be HR1, which among other things, seeks to relax voting registration requirements further including permitting 16 year-olds and felons to vote, expanding the use of mail-in voting without identification, and possible statehood for Puerto Rico. All this is designed to make the Democrat majority permanent.
  7. Finally, don’t be surprised to see a substantial tax hike at some point, even for the middle class. Somehow, someone will have to pay for all this federal government largesse. That someone will be you and me.

The Dems’ goal is to achieve all of their program without any input from the GOP, and they may just pull it off.

The foregoing is not a complete list. There have been many additional actions that will hurt the country.


Biden has continued to demonstrate a diminished cognitive ability. In some cases, the evidence is obvious, such as his propensity to stumble over words, lose his place, and forget names. In other instances it is more subtle. For example, Kamala Harris has been meeting one-on-one with other heads of state, a function traditionally in the president’s purview; Biden has not held one press conference at which reporters could ask him meaningful questions; and he has been working “short” days. Think back to the manner in which other presidents operated. This is not normal. Don’t be surprised if he does not last even one full term before being replaced.

I wonder how many Biden voters are now suffering from “buyer’s remorse?” How many of the aforementioned Keystone Pipeline workers voted for him? How many others who work in an energy-related field, or live near the border, or own or work in small businesses, or have kids of school age who cannot attend school in person or play school sports were mislead into voting for the “moderate” Joe? I am not trying to be callous or malicious; I feel badly for those people, but nothing can be done about it now. The list goes on and on.

The Dems now control the entire government for the next two years, and we are stuck with them. In my view, with their radical agenda, excessive political correctness, and cancel culture they are ruining the country. The latest example is their attack on Dr. Seuss, whose books have charmed and entertained generations of children. Dr. Seuss a racist? Really? Tell that to Michele Obama who enjoyed reading his books to children. I suppose the “woke” crowd now considers her to be a racist too.

Where will it all end? It is said that “elections have consequences” and “you get the government you deserve.” Well, we got it, and we deserve it. I fervently hope we can last until 2024 or at least 2022.


Since February has been designated as Black History month, I thought it appropriate to publish a series of blogs featuring outstanding contributions by African Americans. This blog features the Tuskegee Airmen.

AAs have fought with distinction in every war beginning with the Revolutionary War. In fact, the first colonist to be killed in battle is generally acknowledged to have been an AA, Crispus Attucks, who was slain during the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770. Ironically, during the RW AAs fought side-by-side with whites, so technically the American Army was integrated before it was segregated. Moreover, although some AAs fought on the side of the British due to promises of freedom most of them resisted that siren song and remained loyal to the colonies.

At the advent of WWII the military, like much of Americana, was segregated. Racial discrimination was a way of life. It may be incomprehensible to us now, especially the younger among us, but AAs were generally perceived by white America as inferior and not suitable for serving in certain capacities, such as piloting airplanes. This view was fostered and supported by a study by the Army War College in 1925. Moreover, AAs were required to live, train and fight separately from whites, and their units were under the command of white officers. (Ironically, although AAs were required to sit in a separate area in the back of a bus they were required to sit in the front passenger section of trains. The reason was that the steam locomotives of the day belched copious amounts of soot and ash, which made riding uncomfortable in the forward seating areas, particularly during the warm weather when windows were open.)

In spite of the foregoing, a group of AAs had the desire to pilot airplanes. Between 1941 and 1946 some 3,000 of them trained at the Tuskegee Institute, which was located in Tuskegee, Alabama. The Tuskegee Airmen became the first AAs to qualify as pilots. Up to then there had not been any AA pilots in the US. Their ambitious goal was to qualify as pilots and fight for their country. They became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. The program was initiated and supported by the FDR Administration, which reasoned that with the likelihood of a war the country would require the services of ALL Americans. About 1,000 of that original group survived the rigorous training program and ultimately graduated. By the time the program was concluded some 14,000 pilots and support personnel had been trained. In addition to the rigorous training, they had to endure the aforementioned discrimination and preconceptions of inferiority among Army personnel.

The program received a significant public relations boost from the First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. In 1941 she famously flew with an AA flight instructor, C. Alfred Anderson. Upon landing safely she proclaimed to him “well, you can fly, all right.”

Initially, Tuskegee graduates were afforded very little respect by the powers-that-be. Typically, they were deployed to North Africa rather than Europe and designated to fly the more obsolete equipment. Later, they were permitted to fly the more advanced fighters, such as P51 Mustangs. At first, they were tasked with escorting bombers, which was generally perceived to be less risky than flying sorties. Whether by accident or design, most of the bombing crews were unaware that they were being protected by AA crews. There were some losses, but Army records disclosed that their “protection rate” was as good as that of white pilots. The TAs became known as “Red Tails” owing to their habit of painting the tail sections of their planes red.

The Army carefully restricted where the TAs were assigned and what they were permitted to do. For instance, as I said, at first, they were discouraged from directly engaging the enemy in “dogfights,” but eventually they did so and with distinction. Tuskegee Airmen recorded 112 confirmed kills. Eighty-four TAs were killed in battle, and 30 others were captured. In addition, they were permitted to bomb the Japanese but not white Europeans. Apparently, the Army was more concerned with offending the sensibilities of the Nazis and fascists than with its own people.


The TA pilots served with distinction, and, as a result, paved the way for all people of color who would follow. Many historians credit them, in part, for the US’s integrating the Armed Services, which President Truman mandated by Executive Order in 1948.

Some of their accomplishment were:

  1. Flying 1,578 combat missions.
  2. Flying 179 bomber escort missions.
  3. Destroying 112 enemy aircraft.
  4. Earning various medals, including one Silver Star, 96 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 14 Bronze Stars , 744 Air Medals and eight Purple Hearts.
  5. Collectively, being awarded a Congressional Gold Medal.
  6. Four have become generals, and many others have gone on to be successful in other endeavors.

Despite this stellar record of accomplishments old habits die hard, and the TAs continued to bear the brunt of racism and discrimination for years afterward. Today, many consider the US military to be the ultimate meritocracy. I believe that is due, in no small part, to the achievements of the Tuskegee Airmen.