KEITH JACKSON

Keith Jackson was one of the most versatile sportscasters of his generation.  During his long, illustrious career he called contests in virtually every major (and not so major) sport, such as, (baseball major and minor leagues), football (NFL, college and USFL), basketball (NBA and college), summer and winter Olympics, boxing, auto racing, golf, speed skating, hydroplane races and ski jumping.  But, it was in college football that he really made his mark.  For some 50 years, if there was a big college football game chances are Jackson was calling it.  To college football fans, he was “Mr. College Football.”

Keith Max Jackson was born in Roopville, GA on October 18,, 1928.  His parents were dirt farmers and very poor, i. e. they barely eked out a subsistence on a farm on mostly barren land without any hired help.  He was the only child in the family that survived childhood.  His favorite leisure pastime was listening to sports on the radio.  After high school he enlisted in the marines.  Following his discharge he took advantage of the GI Bill to earn a college degree in speech communications at Washington State University.

Jackson broke into the business in 1952 when he called a college football game between his alma mater and Stanford University.  He joined ABC in 1964 as a radio news correspondent.  In 1966 he joined ABC sports, and he was on his way.

Some of the highlights of his career were as follows:

  1. He covered the 1964 Republican National Convention with Walter Cronkite.
  2. Most people do not know that he was the initial announcer on Monday Night Football.  (ABC had wanted Frank Gifford, but Gifford was contractually bound to CBS.  After one year Gifford became available, and ABC replaced Jackson with him.)
  3. He called events in ten Olympic Games, including the infamous 1972 Munich Games.
  4. He was a regular on the renowned Wide World of Sports.
  5. In 1975, while covering the North American Continental Boxing Championships, he spied a young boxer named Sugar Ray Leonard and labeled him as “one to watch.”  As sports fans know, Leonard won a Gold Medal at the 1976 Games and went on to become one of the best boxers of his time.
  6. He called the historic 16-inning playoff game between the NY Mets and Houston Astros in 1986, won by the Mets to send them to the World Series, which they won as well.

However, as I said, it was in college football that he made his mark.  He began in an era when the announcers of most games worked alone, without an analyst.  Furthermore, in that prehistoric era there would be very few games on tv, not the plethora of choices we have today.  For the most part, he was assigned to the most important game of the week that reached the widest audience.   The audience knew that if Jackson was calling the game, it was a big one.  In the words of Bob Iger, CEO of Disney, which owns ABC, “For generations of fans, Keith Jackson was college football.”

He called 15 Rose Bowls and 16 Sugar Bowls.  It was he who labeled the former the “granddaddy” of Bowl games.  In addition, he is credited with creating the moniker, The Big House, to describe Michigan University’s huge stadium, which seats in excess of 100,000 fans.

Jackson was known for his “folksy,” “down-home” expressions.  Some examples, “Whoa, Nellie and “Hold the phonnne!,” when, for instance, an official had thrown a penalty flag  on a play.  Frequently, he would refer to huge linemen as “Big Uglies,” or “That guy is a ‘hus’ (horse).”  Somehow, the national tv audience found these expressions to be charming, not offensive.

CONCLUSION

In addition to the foregoing, Jackson appeared in several movies, as himself, such as, The Fortune Cookie (1966), Summer of Sam (1999), and The Bronx is Burning (2007); tv shows (Coach) and commercials (Gatorade, Miller Lite and Shoney’s.

Jackson was the recipient of innumerable awards and honors.  For instance:

  1. His alma mater presented him with the (Edward R.) Murrow award for outstanding performances in the communications industry.
  2.  He was inducted into the American Sportscasters and National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Halls of Fame.
  3. In 1999 The National Football Foundation presented Jackson with its highest honor, The Gold Medal Award.”
  4. In 2015 the Rose Bowl renamed the stadium’s radio and tv booths “The Keith Jackson Broadcast Center.”

Jackson passed away on January 12, 2018.  Rest in peace, Keith.  You will be sorely missed.

 

 

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I HAVE A DREAM

Tomorrow, January 15, we will celebrate Martin Luther King’s birthday.  The holiday is always celebrated on the 3rd Monday of January, but this year it happens to fall on his actual birthday.

This year will mark the 50th anniversary of his untimely assassination on April 4, 1968.  For some people the day holds no special meaning; it is just a day off from work, a day to spend with family or friends, part of a long three-day weekend. For many of us, however, particularly those of us who were alive in the 1950s and 1960s, it is much, much more.

MLK was born on January 15, 1929. He became the most prominent and influential American civil rights leader in the 1950s and 1960s, maybe ever. MLK was more than just a pastor. He believed that more could be achieved by civil disobedience and non-violence than by violence. He preached peaceful disobedience, sit-ins, marches and demonstrations, often in the face of violence and cruelty by the police and others, rather than rioting. In this regard, he was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi. In turn, he inspired others such as the Black Civil Rights movement in South Africa.

He also recognized the power of the press to bring attention to his cause and influence public opinion. For example, as many as 70 million people around the world witnessed the police brutality inflicted on the peaceful black and white marchers in Selma, Alabama, including women and children as well as men. Those images, broadcast live on TV and radio, appalled and disgusted many people and provided an immeasurable boost to the public awareness of the injustices being visited upon blacks in the South.

Unlike any other African American leaders before or since, he had the ability to unite, rather than divide. Although he was criticized by some of the more militant civil rights leaders of the time, such as Stokely Carmichael, he commanded the support and respect of a large majority of blacks and many whites as well. In that regard, he was similar to Nelson Mandela. After his death, despite the urgings of some civil rights leaders who wanted to continue MLK’s philosophy, more militant African American leaders, such as Mr. Carmichael, came into prominence. There was rioting in over 100 US cities, and a slew of violent incidents at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago in front of the national press and millions of Americans. The Civil Rights movement was changed forever.

MLK came into prominence in 1955 when he led a bus boycott, peacefully, in Montgomery, Alabama. The boycott had been fueled by the famous Rosa Parks incident in which she had refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person. She was arrested on December 1. (Most people don’t know that earlier that year in March a similar incident had occurred, also in Montgomery, involving Claudette Colvin, a black girl who also refused to give up her seat to a white man. However, that case did not receive the same notoriety. Civil rights lawyers declined to pursue it because Colvin was 15, unmarried and pregnant. They chose to wait for a case with a more favorable fact pattern, and they were proven to be right.)

Later, MLK became the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and remained so until his death. He applied his non-violence philosophy to protests in Selma, Ala., St. Augustine, FL, and the March on Washington, D. C., among others. He made it a policy never to endorse a particular political party or candidate. He believed he could be more effective if he were neutral and not beholden to anyone. Furthermore, in his view, neither party was all bad, and neither one was perfect. In his words, “[t]hey both have weaknesses.”

Perhaps, MLK’s most famous moment occurred during the famous March on Washington in August 1963. Ironically, MLK was not the primary organizer of the march. That was Bayard Rustin, a colleague. The primary purpose of the March was to dramatize the plight of blacks in the South. Civil rights leaders, including Roy Wilkins, NAACP, Whitney Young, National Urban League, A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, John Lewis, SNCC, James Farmer CORE, and MLK, wanted to bring awareness of these issues right to the seat of the Federal government. More than 250,000 people of all ethnicities and colors attended. MLK was one of several speakers, and he only spoke for 17 minutes. But, his “I Have a Dream” speech became one of the most famous speeches ever. The March, in general, and MLK’s speech, in particular, are credited with bringing civil rights to the political forefront and facilitating the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Some little-known facts about MLK:

1. His birth name was Michael King, Jr., after his father. In 1931 his father changed his own name to Martin Luther King, after the German theologian, Martin Luther, whom he admired. At the same time, he changed his son’s name.

2. In 1958 MLK was stabbed in the chest after a speech by a woman who had been stalking him and nearly died.

3. The FBI began tapping MLK’s telephone as early as 1963. Robert Kennedy, who was Attorney General at the time and who is viewed as a staunch supporter of civil rights, in general, and MLK, in particular, authorized the tapping.

4. MLK won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 at the age of 35, the youngest age ever at the time.

5. MLK won a Grammy Award in 1971, posthumously. It should be denoted that he won it, not because he displayed a great singing voice, but for a “Spoken Word Album,” “Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam.”  In addition, we won countless other awards and was awarded some 50 honorary degrees from various colleges and universities.

6. The US Treasury has announced that it will be redesigning the $5 bill.  It will still feature Abraham Lincoln on the front side, but the back side will feature depictions of events that have occurred at the Lincoln Memorial, including MLK’s “I have a dream” speech.  The Treasury expects to have these new bills in circulation by 2020.

7.  Even though MLK was one of the great public speakers of his time, inexplicably, he got a “C” in a public speaking course at the seminary. (Kind of like a baseball scout saying Babe Ruth can hit “a little bit.”)

8. MLK is one of three individuals and the only native-born American to have a holiday named after him. In case you’re wondering, the others are George Washington (born in the COLONY of Virginia), and Christopher Columbus.

Some MLK quotes to ponder:

1. “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”

2. “The time is always right to do what is right.”

3. “We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools.”

4. “Darkness cannot drive out darkness, only light can do that.  Hate cannot drive out hate, only love can do that.”

5.  “Free at last. Free at last.  Thank God almighty, we are free at last.”

6.  “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.”

CONCLUSION

Today, there is much division among African Americans as well as their leaders. Some are moderate and want to work within the system; others are more militant. Many of them have their own agendas and look for any excuse to foment distrust and discord. I believe that these militant leaders and we all know who they are, do more harm than good, but that is a subject for another blog.

In my opinion, we have made much progress in the area of civil rights.  For example, we have elected an African American president (twice); an African American sits on the Supreme Court; and African Americans hold and have held positions of prominence in every field of endeavor, including business, entertainment, sports, and the military.  But, still, it is a work in progress and we still have a ways to go.

One can speculate whether and to what extent MLK’s assassination changed the course of history. In my opinion, had MLK lived, the Civil Rights Movement would have been considerably different over the last 50 years, more peaceful and less divisive, with better results. Furthermore, his assassination had a significant impact, not only on the history of the civil rights movement, but also on the overall history of the country, itself.
I hope and believe that eventually a moderate leader will emerge and bridge the gap as MLK did half a century ago.

Today, as you enjoy the day in whatever manner you choose, I ask you to reflect for a moment on where we are as a nation regarding civil rights, where we want to go and how we get there.

FIRST FEMALE GENERAL

Anna Mae Hays, who began her military career as a nurse at a jungle outpost in India during WWII and ended up becoming the nation’s first female general, has passed away at the age of 97.  During a career that spanned four decades and three wars she became known as a fierce advocate for the Army Nurse Corps and for female officers, in general, and was at least partly responsible for many improvements in the treatment of battlefield injuries.

Anna Mae Violet McCabe Hays was born on February 16, 1920 in Buffalo, NY, but she was raised in Allentown, PA.  She was the middle of three children.  Her parents were members of The Salvation Army.  As a child, Hays displayed two interests and talents – music and nursing.  She became adept at playing the French horn, the piano and the organ.  Furthermore, she would pretend to treat wounds by wrapping bandages around the legs of their kitchen table.

After her high school graduation she wanted to attend the Julliard School of Music.  Unfortunately, even though she had been an honor student, she failed to win a scholarship, and her parents could not afford to pay the tuition.  Consequently, she turned to nursing.

In 1941 she graduated from the Allentown General School of Nursing, just in time to enlist in the Army Nurse Corps.  Her first posting was in the jungles of India.  As one can imagine, the conditions were extremely primitive.  The buildings were constructed of bamboo and mud.  The outpost was servicing Army special ops units and construction workers who were building a road to connect India and China.  In addition to the Japanese, one had to deal with malaria, gangrene, dysentery, dengue fever, snakes and leeches.   Normally, most everyone, staff included, was ill with something.  Hays often told the story of the time she was sick and spotted a cobra under her bed.  Rather than panicking, she calmly asked a guard to shoot it.  Her explanation: “When one lives in the jungle, one can expect that sort of thing.”

Later, Hays served in both Korea and Viet Nam.  She rose through the ranks, and by 1967 she had become the head of the Army Nurse Corps, a position she held until her retirement in 1971.  Some of her accomplishments were as follows:

  1. During the Korean conflict she helped establish the first military hospital in Inchon.  She characterized the conditions there as being equally as bad as those in India, if not worse, due to the extremely cold temperatures and chronic lack of adequate supplies.
  2. She was a staunch advocate of additional funding for the Nurse Corps, which, as Sanders Marble, senior historian in the Army’s Office of Medical History denoted, was a “hard sell at that time.”
  3. In 1970 she was responsible for establishing  a policy of maternity leave for officers.  Previously, pregnant officers were automatically discharged.
  4. She was responsible for developing, monitoring and improving various nurse educational and training programs, and was a strong advocate of increasing the number of overseas postings.
  5. Some of her other postings were head nurse at Fort Dix, NJ, obstetrics nurse supervisor at Valley Forge General Hospital in Phoenixville, PA, head nurse at Fort Myer, VA, and head nurse of the emergency room at Walter Reed Hospital in Maryland.  It was at the latter posting where she met her husband, Dr. William Hays, who was on staff there.  Moreover, in 1956, she had the privilege of treating then-President Dwight Eisenhower, who was recuperating from surgery for ileitis.  They became lifelong friends.  One humorous story that most of you will appreciate:  The Morning Call of Allentown reported that one day Vice President Richard Nixon came to visit. Ike asked Hays if he should see him.   Hays said no.  Ike said okay.  Then, Hays went out to Nixon in the hallway, shook his hand, and said “I’m sorry, but the president doesn’t feel he is able to see you.”  Personally, given the relationship between Ike and Nixon, I believe the story.

CONCLUSION

During her distinguished career Hays continued her education.  She earned a Bachelors Degree in nursing from Columbia University Teachers College in 1958 and a Masters Degree from Catholic University of America in 1968.

Besides her various military honors Hays was named to the Lehigh County’s Hall of Fame.  In addition, Lehigh and Northampton counties honored her by naming the Coplay-Northampton Bridge after her.

The signature moment of her career occurred on June 11, 1970 when she became the US Army’s first female general.  Her official presenter was Mamie Eisenhower.  (For the record, a second female, Elizabeth Hoisington, was also promoted moments later the same day.)   Oddly, until 1968 that rank had been barred to women by law.   The president who signed off on the promotion – Richard Nixon.

Hays was a true trailblazer.  Many others followed, and in 2008 General Ann Dunwoody became the first female four-star general.

Despite all the advances on behalf of female Army nurses and military nursing, in general, Hays did not consider herself to be a feminist, per se, and did not wanted to be identified as one.   She was really proud of her time in the Army Nurse Corps and claimed that if she “had to do it all over again, [I] would do it longer.”  According to the NY Times when asked how she wanted to be remembered, Hays replied “first of all, as the first woman general, but [also] as a very honest person, as a kind individual who did her best – and succeeded.”

Hays passed away on January 7, 2018.  Rest in peace Anna.  You were a true difference-maker and will be sorely missed.

THE RISING TIDE OF ANTI-SEMITISM

The very disturbing rising tide of anti-Semitism in the world should not be surprising to any person who has been monitoring the news on a regular basis.  I am not referring to instances in the Middle East.  Those are not surprising, given the demographic make-up of those countries.  What I find most disturbing is the rising tide of anti-Semitism in the US and Western Europe, areas that are thought as enlightened and tolerant.  I have published a few blogs that deal with anti-Semitism, but recent disturbing events mandate that I revisit the topic.

Recently, there have innumerable instances in various of these so-called enlightened and tolerant countries.  For example, in just the last couple of months:

  1. US – According to a recently-published report by the Anti-Defamation League 1,299 defamatory instances were reported in the US for the nine months ended September 30, 2017, which represented a whopping 67% increase over the same period in 2016.  Even more disturbing was the sharp increase in anti-Semitic-related bullying, taunting and vandalism in K-12 schools and on college campuses.  The highest frequency of these incidents occurred in states, such as NY, Cal., Mass, and FL, where the largest Jewish populations reside.  One could interpret that result as “familiarity breeding contempt” on the part of bigots.
  2. I have posted blogs dealing with anti-Semitism on college campuses before, but below please find a few more recent incidents to illustrate my point.
  3. The Chancellor’s Office of UC Santa Cruz reported that there were eleven anti-Semitic incidents on campus just during the last calendar quarter.  They included spray-painted swastikas, fliers containing white nationalist language, desecration of an Israeli flag, and the like.  Campus spokesman Scott Hernandez denoted that  there were fewer such incidents compared to last year.  Fine, but even one is one too many.
  4. In December at Portland Community College – Cascade dozens of neo-Nazi, anti-Semitic and white supremacist posters, fliers and stickers were distributed around the campus.  One notable poster depicted a sinister-looking man with a hooked nose, the classic caricature of a Jew.  Another flier used the phrase “blood and oil,” the Nazi Party symbol for anti-Semitism and directed the reader to the web site “bloodandoil.org.”  Nice.
  5. Also in December, a student at Tufts published an op-ed in the campus newspaper, Tufts Daily, that delegitimized the State of Israel as a “real” country, characterizing it as a “European colonial settlement established by the British Government and now sustained by imperialism and neo-colonial powers…  The supporters of the Zionist movement around the world have no legal or historic right to immigrate, confiscate and claim lands that belong to the indigenous people of Palestine.”  Sounds like the ravings of a lunatic to me, not something one would expect to hear from a college student at a mainstream university, but this is where we are today.
  6. For a change of pace, we have a Florida cop who was forced to resign after posting anti-Semitic comments on Facebook.  This was not an isolated instance.  In 2011 he implied that Jews were somehow taking unwarranted advantage of “our system,” adding “put them in an oven and deal with them the Hitler way.”  In 2013 he posted an anti-Semitic joke:  “What’s the difference between boy scouts and Jews?  …  Boy scouts come back from their camps.”
  7. In previous blogs I have reported anti-Semitic incidents in various European countries, such as Sweden, UK, France, Belgium, Italy and Spain, among others.  These are part  of a disturbing trend, which, if anything, is accelerating.  Just in December there were incidents in Germany, France and the UK.
  8. The New York Post reported that anti-Semitism is “sweeping” Germany.  For example:

a. Charlotte Knobloch, the former president of the Central Council of Jews in Germany and a Holocaust survivor, has opined that “anti-Semitism [is] in the heart of German society.”  Moreover, the word “Jew” has once again become an insult in German schoolyards.”  Knobloch has been pressing the government to appoint a special commissioner to help combat the problem, but, in my opinion, that will not resolve the problem.  People’s basic attitudes will have to change, and I am not optimistic about that happening.

b.  Many Jews are trying to live in the shadows by down-playing their Jewishness.  It is estimated that there are some 200,000 Jews living in Germany, and about half of them are “unaffiliated.”

c.  Many hateful instances have been posted online.  For example, in Berlin a hateful barrage of anti-Semitic insults directed to a restauranteur by a patron went viral.  Moreover, during Hanukkah in Heilbron haters desecrated a public menorah.

d.  I believe, as do many others, that these instances can be attributed, in part, to a substantial influx of immigrants from Russia and predominantly Muslim countries.  Many of them have brought their hateful attitudes with them.  In addition, concurrently, there has been an increase in the power and influence of a right-wing neo-Nazi political party, which has given “cover” to these vile haters.

9.  Youpi, a French children’s magazine, published an article insinuating that Israel was not a “real” country.  The article read, in part,: “There are 197 countries, like France, Algeria, or Germany.  There are a few more, but not all other countries in the world agree that they are real countries (for example, the State of Israel or North Korea).”  Israel’s ambassador to France, Aliza Bin Noun,  stated she was “shocked by this lie taught to children.”  Youpi Magazine’s publisher, apologized for the “mistake” and had the issue pulled from stands, but, obviously, the damage was done.

10.  In the UK the problem is more insidious.  Yes, the country has had its many anti-Semitic incidents, but, worse, many of its major cities, including London, Leeds, and Birmingham, among others, have been electing Muslim and Sharia Law-leaning politicians.  These peaceful, legal “takeovers,” which I believe can be traced to Britain’s “open door” immigration policy, do not bode well for Jews in those cities or for the UK as a whole.

11. Recently, virtually every country, except for the US and a few others, supported a UN resolution criticizing the US’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the bona-fide capital of Israel and move its embassy there.  The official argument was it would hurt the “peace process.”  I say, what “peace process.”  How can there be a realistic “peace process” when most of the Arab countries continue to refuse even to acknowledge Israel’s legitimacy?

CONCLUSION

Once again, we can learn from history.  Don’t forget, Jews lived peacefully in Egypt, Poland, Spain, Russia and many other countries for centuries until the powers that be decided to expel or murder them.  They were welcome until they weren’t.  Presently, Jews all over the world are feeling increasingly uncomfortable in their home countries and are emigrating to Israel.

Time and time again beginning with the Roman Empire, Jews have been a convenient scapegoat for a country’s economic, social and political problems.  Who killed Christ?  The Jews.  Crops failed?  Blame the Jews.  Stock market tanked?  Jewish bankers.  What will Jews be blamed for next?  Global warming?

BATAAN DEATH MARCH SURVIVOR DIES AT 100

Ramon Regalado, a Filipino native living in San Francisco, who survived the infamous Bataan Death March in WWII passed away on December 16, 2017 at the age of 100.  The BDM was one of the most heinous and inhumane events of the Asian Theatre, and that says a lot, but more on that later.

Regalado was born in 1917 in the Philippines.  When the Japanese invaded the islands he was one of the thousands of Filipinos who fought bravely alongside American soldiers.  He served as a machine gun operator during the Battle of Bataan.

The situation was desperate.  The Filipino defenses had been ill prepared for the war. Furthermore, much of the American troops, under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, had evacuated.  (Many of you will recall MacArthur’s famous boast to the Filipinos –  “I shall return.”)  The combined forces were heavily outnumbered and outgunned.  Furthermore, the Japanese had already earned a well-deserved reputation for wanton cruelty and a blatant disregard for the stipulations of the Geneva Conventions.

The Japanese attacked the Philippines in January, 1942.  The combined American-Filipino forces fought valiantly but surrendered on April 9, 1942, and that was when the horror began. The Japanese took between 60,000 and 80,000 prisoners and moved them from Bataan to Camp O’Donnell in Capas, Tarlac, some 65 miles north.  Any prisoner who was discovered to be in possession of Japanese money or souvenirs was shot or bayonetted on the spot.

Most of the March was on foot; the rest was by train  The March was characterized by extreme and wanton brutality. The Japanese exhibited nothing but contempt for their prisoners. The sick and wounded were not treated.  There was little food and water.  The heat was extreme, and the prisoners were often forced to sit exposed to the unrelenting sun.   They unceremoniously murdered anyone who was unable to keep up.  Some were shot; others were bayonetted.  The dead bodies were merely discarded at the side of the road to be collected and disposed of later, or not.  There is no accurate count of those prisoners who died during the march, but estimates run as high as 650 Americans and 18,000 Filipinos.  For the train portion, as former prisoner, Sargent Alf Larson later recalled: “They packed us in like sardines, so tight you couldn’t sit down…  If someone had to go to the toilet, you went [right] there where you were.”  Only about 54,000 of the original 80,000 prisoners survived the March.

Camp O’Donnell was not much of a relief.  Starvation and disease were rampant.  Several hundred prisoners died every day.  For the most part, the dead were simply dumped into mass graves like so much refuse.  That explains why there isn’t an accurate count and why many have never been identified.

It is not clear when the US government discovered these atrocities, but the American public was unaware of them until January 1944 when Life Magazine published an expose based on the stories disseminated by various escapees.  The government and the military high command were quick to condemn the Japanese in the strongest terms.  For example, General George C. Marshall stated “these brutal reprisals upon helpless victims evidence the shallow advance from savagery, which the Japanese people have made….  {T}he future of the Japanese race, itself, depends entirely and irrevocably upon their capacity to progress beyond their aboriginal barbaric instincts.”  After the war, an Allied military commission concluded that this mistreatment of prisoners constituted war crimes.

Eventually, Regalado escaped with two other prisoners.  At the time, all three were sick with malaria.  Luckily, a friendly farmer gave them shelter.  However, of the three, only Regalado survived.  Eventually, he joined a guerilla unit and continued to fight.  After the war, he emigrated to the US.

CONCLUSION

Regalado was one of some 250,000 Filipinos who served alongside American troops during the war.  Approximately 57,000 of them died.  The US had promised them veterans benefits and US citizenship, but it was many years before those promises were honored.  In addition, this past October the government awarded many of them, including Regalado, the Congressional Gold Medal.

Today, there are dozens of memorials dedicated to the heroism of those who were in the March, including monuments, plaques and schools.  Moreover, the March has been depicted in a 2012 documentary entitled Never the Same: The Prisoner of War Experience.

Regalado was one of the few who lived to see the belated recognition.  Rest in peace, Ramon.  You were a true patriot and hero.