HISTORY THIS MONTH – DECEMBER

More painless history.  Many historically-significant events have occurred during the month of December.  Below please find what I consider the most significant:

12/1/1955 – Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgonery, AL for refusing to surrender her seat on a bus to a white man.  This action precipitated a year-long bus boycott and many other protests against segregation led by the Reverend Martin Luther King, among others, and was what many consider the seminal event for the civil rights movement.

12/2/1804 – Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France by Pope Pius VII.

12/2/1823 – President James Monroe articulated the “Monroe Doctrine,” which, essentially, forbad any further colonization of the Western Hemisphere by any European power, and which became a key element of the US’s foreign policy prospectively.

12/2/1954 – The Senate condemned Senator Joseph McCarthy for misconduct, effectively ending his irresponsible communist witch hunt.

12/3/1967 – Dr. Christiaan Barnard performed the first successful heart transplant in Cape Town, South Africa.

12/6/1492 – Christopher Columbus “discovered” the “New World,” landing at the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.

12/6/1865 – The 13th Amendment to the US Constitution was ratified, which abolished slavery.

12/6/1973 – Gerald Ford was sworn in as vice president replacing Spiro Agnew who had been forced to resign following his pleading “no contest” to charges of income tax evasion.

12/7/1787 – Delaware became the first state to ratify the US constitution.

12/7/1941 – Japan perpetrated a surprise attack of the US naval base at Pearl Harbor destroying the US Pacific Fleet and precipitating the US’s entry into WWII.  FDR called it a “date that will live in infamy,” and it has.

12/10/1896 – Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel died.  In his will he stipulated that a committee of the Norwegian Parliament award from his estate annual prizes (valued at approximately $1 million) for Peace, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Literature and Economics.

12/11/1901 – Guglielmo Marconi transmitted the first transatlantic radio signal.

12/11/1936 – King Edward VIII abdicated the English throne in order to marry divorcee Wallis Simpson.

12/13/1642 – Dutch navigator Abel Tasman discovered New Zealand.

12/14/1799 – George Washington dies at Mt. Vernon.

12/14/1911 – Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen became the first person to reach the South Pole.

12/15/1791 – Virginia became the 11th state to ratify the Bill of Rights making it an official part of the Constitution.  (Ratification of an amendment to the Constitution requires 75% of the states, and Vermont had become the 14th state.  The three holdouts were Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Georgia, which did not ratify it until 1939.)

12/15/1961 –  Notorious Nazi SS Colonel Adolph Eichmann was sentenced to death in Jerusalem for his role in the Holocaust during WWII.

12/16/1773 –  A group of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded British ships anchored in Boston Harbor and dumped 300+ containers of tea overboard as a protest to what they viewed as an unjust tax on the product.  This became known as the Boston Tea Party and was a part of the chain of events that culminated in the American Revolutionary War.

12/17/1903 – The Wright Brothers – Wilbur and Orville – made the first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, NC.

12/19/1946 – War broke in what was then called French-Indochina.  Eventually, the French were ousted, and the US got drawn into war in Viet Nam, which did not end well for us.

12/20/1860 – South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union.  Over the next few months ten other states followed, and the Civil War ensued.

12/21/1846 –  Dr. Robert Liston was the first surgeon to use anesthesia (in a leg amputation in London).

12/21/1945 – General George Patton, aka “Old Blood and Guts,” died from injuries suffered in a car accident in Germany.  Some historians have postulated that the accident was intentional, but this has never been proven.

12/23/1947 – The transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories.

12/25 – Christmas Day when Christians commemorate the birth of Christ.

12/25/1776 – George Washington led a small contingent of Colonial troops across the Delaware River from Valley Forge, PA to Trenton, NJ in the dead of night, where they surprised and defeated a substantially larger contingent of Hessian mercenaries.  This daring and famous victory provided a major boost to the flagging revolutionary war effort.

12/26 – Boxing Day is celebrated in the UK, Canada, and various other countries that, formerly, were part of the British Empire.  It has nothing to do with pugilism.  Most likely, it has evolved from the 18th Century English custom of giving a “Christmas box” containing gifts, such as food or clothes, to servants and tradesmen as a reward for good service throughout the year.

12/26 – 1/1 – Kwanza, an African – American holiday established in 1966, is observed.  It celebrates family unity and a bountiful harvest.  The word means “first fruit” in Swahili.

12/29/1890 – The US cavalry massacred in excess of 200 Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee, SD., which became a symbol of the white man’s brutality to Native Americans.

12/31/1781 – The Bank of North America became the first bank to receive a federal charter.  It commenced business on January 7, 1782 in Philadelphia.

12/31/1879 – Inventor Thomas Edison’s first demonstrated the incandescent lamp (light bulb) at his lab in NJ.

12/31/ –  New Year’s Eve is celebrated throughout the world.

Birthdays – Charles Stuart, American portrait painter (of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, among others), 12/3/1755; Joseph Conrad, Polish novelist, 12/3/1857; Martin Van Buren, 8th President, 12/5/1782; General George Armstrong Custer, 12/5/1839; Walt Disney; 12/5/1901; Ira Gershwin (wrote several hit songs for “Broadway” shows), 12/6/1896; Eli Whitney (cotton gin), 12/8/1765; Clarence Birdseye (invented process for freezing foods), 12/9/1886; Emily Dickenson (poet), 12/10/1830; Melvil Dewey (invented Dewey decimal system used to categorize books in libraries), 12/10/1851; NYC Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia,12/11/1882; John Jay (first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court), 12/12/1745; General James Doolittle (led audacious bombing raid on Tokyo during WWII), 12/14/1896; Alexandre Eifel (Eifel Tower), 12/15/1832; Ludwig van Beethoven (composer), 12/16/1770; George Santayana (philosopher) (“Those who cannot remember the past are doomed to repeat it.”), 12/16/1863; Wily Brandt (Chancellor of West Germany), 12/18/1913; Harvey Firestone (Firestone Tire and Rubber), 12/20/1868; Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvli, aka Josef Stalin, 12/21/1879; Claudia Alta Taylor, aka “Lady Bird Johnson,” 12/22/1912; Japanese WWII Emperor Hirohito, 12/23/1901; Christopher “Kit” Carson, frontiersman, 12/24/1809; Howard Hughes, 12/24/1905; Isaac Newton (theory of gravity), 12/25/1642; Clara Barton (nurse who founded American Red Cross), 12/25/1821; Humphrey Bogart, 12/25/1899; Mao Tse-Tung, 12/26/1893; Louis Pasteur (pasteurization process), 12/27/1822; (Thomas) Woodrow Wilson, 28th President, 12/28/1856; Andrew Johnson (17th president, first to be impeached), 12/29/1808; Pablo Casals (cellist), 12/28/1876; Rudyard Kipling (poet, wrote Jungle Book), 12/30/1865; Hideki Tojo (Japanese WWII Prime Minister), 12/30/1884; General George C. Marshall (Army Chief of Staff, WWII), 12/31/1880.

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